of some of the Kings & Queens of England
House of Normandy:
William I – the Bastard, the
William II – Rufus (the red)
Henry I – Beauclerc or Beauclerk, Lion of Justice
House of Anjou:
II – Curtmantle (short cloak), Lion of Justice and Fitzempress (inferring that Henry
was the illegitimate son of Empress Matilda)
Edward I – Longshanks (long legs), The Hammer of the Scots
John – Lackland (without land - because he lost Anjou to the French), Soft-Sword.
Richard I – the Lionheart.
House of Plantagenet:
IV – Bolingbroke (Henry was born in Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire)
Richard III – Crookback (Like Robert Cecil, Richard suffered from scoliosis or curvature of the spine)
House of Tudor:
VIII – Old Coppernose.
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey reduced the amount of gold and silver in coins to save money. Over time, the metal of the raised areas of a coin, including Henry’s nose, wore off exposing the copper colour beneath.
Mary I – Bloody Mary
Mary had nearly 300 Protestants executed for their alleged part in the attempt to put Lady Jane Grey on throne instead of her.
Elizabeth I – Gloriana, the Virgin Queen, Good Queen Bess
Jane (Lady Jane Grey) – the Nine Days Queen.
House of Stuart:
James I/VI – the Vain, the
Wisest Fool in Christendom
Charles I – the Martyr
Charles II – the Merry
House of Orange:
William IV – the Sailor King
House of Hanover:
George III – the Farmer or
George IV – the Prince of Whales
Victoria – Mrs Brown
House of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha
Edward VII – the Uncle of Europe
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Non fiction: the Kings & Queens of England and how they got there.
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